12. Cyclops


In Anomalous States: Irish Writing and the Post-Colonial Moment (1994) David Lloyd argues that, in contrast to an “authentic” and definable, monologic nationalism as envisioned by the citizen, the episode (and the novel as a whole) demonstrates the heterogeneous hybridity of an Irish colonial culture.

In Joyce, Race, and Empire (1995), Vincent J. Cheng argues that an “imagined community” with a homogenous and authentic national character and racial purity (as argued by the citizen) had never actually existed in Irish history, which was marked by invasion, conquest, multicultural contacts, and cultural/ethnic hybridity.

Joyce, James; Flynn, Catherine. The Cambridge Centenary Ulysses: The 1922 Text with Essays and Notes (418-19). Cambridge University Press.